Control of material structures in the nanometer-scale size can significantly impact the performance of materials at the macro-scale. Mainstream has developed processes to control the size and structure of nanotubes and nanopores. Our nanoporous materials, produced with self-assembled anodized aluminum oxide templates, are used for high-pressure gas storage (hydrogen for fuel cells and oxygen for breathing) and fabrication of aligned nanotubes (carbon for electrochemical cells and semiconductors for thermoelectrics). Additionally, our nanotubes research includes materials for solid-state energy (batteries and ultracapacitors) and nanostructured composites.